Once Europe had trembled under the tramp of French boots; twice Paris had fallen to a foe; three times France had succumbed to invasion. Before the World War II France, like Britain and Germany, led the way in nuclear science, building on the Curie family’s work. Frederic Joliot-Curie set up the first cyclotron or particle accelerator in Europe and with Lew Kowarski succeeded in creating a fission reaction in uranium early in 1939, soon after the discovery of the phenomenon.

Soon after World War I, France joined the international carrier community through the conversion of the battleship hulk Bearn. Although large, Bearn did not carry many aircraft and never actively participated in combat, even during World War II. The construction of two additional large carriers was suspended by World War II, but after the war the French navy gained access to light carriers transferred from Britain and the United States.

On December 9, 1941, Grand Admiral Erich Raeder, the commander of the Kriegsmarine, lifted all restrictions on German naval attacks against American vessels by his surface and submarine fleets. Atlantic sparring between the two powers had been occurring for several months but would now escalate into full-blown conflagration. For the United States a painful lesson on the consequences of complacency and arrogant refusal to accept outside assistance was coming.

The complete systems, maintenance, and aircraft package that the Saab is selling has many potential bonuses for its potential selection as the HX aircraft, since Finland is looking for substantial domestic repair capability and possible technology transfer. If more systems are sold, it could mean more technology is transferred, leading to further potential development of Finnish industry. Despite the requirement in the HX program, Finnish industry seems pretty lukewarm to the idea of producing Gripen parts domestically. However, Saab has pushed the idea pretty hard, stating that some Patria plants could even produce and overhaul engines domestically.

The Leopard 2 is one of the world’s most common main battle tanks, used by militaries on four continents. As such, the market for upgrades that bring the older versions up to the latest standards of protection and lethality is large. The primary player here is Krauss-Maffei Wegman, the original designer of the Leopard 2, who markets a variety of kits and new versions of the Leopard 2.

The Israel Defense Forces field a wide variety of American military equipment, due to significant amounts of American military aid to Israel. However, American equipment has not always been the best suited to the tough desert and urban conditions encountered by the IDF. As a result, American equipment in Israeli service is often extensively modified to fit the IDF’s unique mission. Here are some unique derivatives of American equipment that the IDF fields.

The image shows what may be yet another upgrade to the fighter jet, as it is shows a “Beast Mode” configuration with fourteen Meteor Beyond Visual Range weapons and two Infrared Imaging System Tail-Thrust Vector Controlled short-range air-to-air missiles, along with an external fuel tank for extended missions.

Israel and the United States are developing the Arrow-4 air defense system, which builds on a thirty-year legacy of building and testing anti-ballistic missile systems. The current development was announced on February 18. The Israel Missile Defense Organization and the U.S. Missile Defense Agency commence development of the Arrow-4 Weapon System, Israel’s Ministry of Defense said. 

Back in 2018, Sputnik International put out a piece bashing China’s based J-15 carrier-based fighter jet, describing it as having problems with its flight-control system. But the J-15 is itself a derivative of the Russian Su-33 Flanker. Is the Chinese jet really that inferior to the Russian one? Or are the problems shared, and the article an attempt to distract from the Russian fighter’s own failings?

The modern sniper rifle rose to prominence in the 1980s as a critical tool for counterterrorist teams and continued to prove itself on the battlefields of Iraq and Afghanistan. Advancements in optics, bullet, and manufacturing technology have allowed sniper rifles to reach out to further than ever before, so fielding a modern sniper rifle is important for many militaries. Here are some that could be considered the best.

We argue that extending the lifespan of the currently deployed Minuteman missiles is preferable to replacing them with a new arsenal of ICBMs. Silo-based ICBMs are ultimately ill-suited to counter the emergence of regional nuclear — and especially non-nuclear — threats to U.S. national security. Doubling down on ICBMs would in fact create additional risks to U.S. security. Rather than committing to ICBMs for the next five decades or more, the United States should begin to move its nuclear force structure away from silo ICBMs and look to reduce the comparable elements of Russia’s nuclear forces in tandem through arms control.

In that spirit, there is one other issue with Moscow that requires immediate attention and is worth the effort to cooperate on: the growing number of close contacts between U.S. and NATO air, land, and naval forces and their counterparts on the Russian side. Any of these encounters implies a threat of rapid escalation should something go terribly wrong, like a mid-air collision, a prospect made more likely owing to reckless conduct by the Russians during some of these incidents.

Three of the 155mm/52-calibre K-9 tracked guns, which have a strike range of 38-km, have been taken to a base up the hills in Ladakh to determine their suitability and efficacy for deployment in the high-altitude region.
Based on the performance of the howitzers, the Army could consider placing additional orders for them.

The variety of uses of small drones, and the guidance systems which direct them, can be very difficult to defend against, a reality inspiring the current Air Force effort to solicit new ideas on ways to destroy them. The Air Force recently released a Request for Information (RFI) to industry, asking for new innovations able to counter small enemy drones.

The United Kingdom maintains a fleet of four ballistic missile submarines with the ability to devastate even the largest of countries. This fleet came into being after its ally, the United States, canceled a key weapon system that would have been the cornerstone of London’s nuclear arsenal. Fifty years later, the UK’s missile submarine force is the sole custodian of the country’s nuclear weapons, providing a constant deterrent against nuclear attack.

A large body of evidence in China’s official military and party media indicates the nation’s senior civilian and uniformed leaders recognize significant shortcomings in the warfighting and command capabilities of the People’s Liberation Army (PLA). However, most of this evidence is not translated into English for public consumption and is […]

Why does the United States get war wrong? Why does its use of force rarely achieve national security objectives? And how can this situation be remedied? The New Rules of War: Victory in the Age of Durable Disorder, by Dr. Sean McFate, takes on the mammoth task of addressing these […]

The Indian military is expected to be reorganised under five theatre commands by 2022 with defined areas of operation and a seamless command structure for synchronised operations. With the department of military affairs soon to have additional and joint secretaries after Cabinet clearance, the task of reorganisation of the three […]

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